Monday, 19 January 2015

How consumer protection can help deliver the UN’s new vision of shared prosperity

The world will be missing a big opportunity if we don’t make greater links between consumer protection and sustainable development, explains CI Director General Amanda Long. 

This week, UN member states are coming together in New York to begin to define a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These will replace the UN’s influential Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and will be launched in September 2015.

September will also see the final revision of the UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection (UNGCP), to make them more relevant to consumers in today’s global marketplace.

Consumers International believes a big opportunity will be missed, if we don’t make greater connections between consumer protection and sustainable development.

Despite consumers being at the heart of many of the issues dealt with in the SDGs, there is little or no mention of consumer protection. 

Consumer protection and empowerment should be recognised as central to sustainable development. It ensures that people everywhere are treated fairly and with dignity in the marketplace, and have access to safe and healthy products, and services. This is particularly important for poor and vulnerable people who are often amongst the most exploited.

Consumer protection and empowerment provides a clear means to curb inequalities and to promote fairness, justice and prosperity in an increasingly complex global economy.

To give just three examples of why consumer protection is important to the SDGs:
  • Proposed Goal 2 aims to ‘End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition'. To achieve this, consumers need access to nutritious and affordable food which follows food safety standards.

  • Proposed Goal 3 aims to ‘Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages'. This means that consumers need access to healthcare but also protection against unsafe products and services that cause ill health, injury or death.

  • Proposed Goal 8 calls for ‘sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth'. It is hard to see how this can be achieved unless consumers are represented and empowered to play their part in the economy. 

Similar points can be made in relation to almost every one of the proposed Goals.

The most effective way to make the link between consumer protection and the SDGs, is to make 
implementation of the UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection one of the targets in the SDGs.

This will provide real practical support for consumer protection:
  • It will raise the profile of consumer protection with international and national organisations and agencies who have not previously seen it as part of their agenda.
  • It will require the international community to measure and report on the implementation of the UN Guidelines on a regular basis.

This is why CI is calling for the UNGCP to be included under the proposed Goal on the ‘means of implementation and global partnership’, with the following truly cross-cutting target:

  • By 2030 ensure all countries have implemented the UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection. 

People’s ability to consume, the consumption choices available to them and whether they are treated fairly as consumers, fundamentally affects the quality of their lives and of the environment around them.

Clearly then, the SDGs’ objectives to eradicate poverty, protect the planet and promote shared prosperity, fundamentally rely on how consumers think and act, and how their opportunities and choices are protected – in the developed and developing world.

CI is looking forward to further engagement on a more inclusive and consumer-focused development agenda throughout this vital year – to help make shared prosperity a reality. 

Friday, 5 December 2014

Tick, click and hope for best no longer cuts it for consumers who want tech on their terms.


The next big step for consumers in the digital age could well be one that puts consent to share data on the terms of the individual, not the service provider. CI Director General, Amanda Long, explains.

The storm over Uber’s consumer privacy settings is just the latest in a growing list of concerns about the tech industry’s handling of our data. From general irritation about targeted ads; to deep unease about our personal data security, to fears over the erosion of civil liberties – there is concern about who has access to data about us and what they are doing with it.

In the US 86% of consumers have tried to use the internet in ways that minimise the visibility of their digital footprints. Across Europe, 55% of consumers fear becoming a victim of fraud when disclosing personal data in online transactions, while 68% of UK consumers find the way that brands use the information they hold on them creepy.
This unease is exacerbated by the lack of transparency over who is obtaining our data, who they are sharing it with, how they are using it, and to what ends.

Take Axciom, one of the world’s largest data brokers. Unbeknown to almost everybody, it is reported to hold 1,500 pieces of information on more than 500 million people around the world, giving it the ability to predict 3,000 possible reactions to brands and marketing techniques. 

Such data brokerage firms – part of a multi-billion dollar industry that has emerged to meet growing demand – are harvesting data about us from multiple sources online (and offline) and combining it into rich, if incomplete and context-less, profiles of individuals, segmented to meet the needs of their clients.

The collection of such data is being used to sell us stuff in more and more extraordinary ways.  

Personalisation

In 2012, for instance, US retail giant Target sought to outdo its competitors in reaching the lucrative ‘new parent’ demographic by developing an algorithm that used purchasing history data to predict which of its female customers were pregnant. It would then send tailored discount vouchers for maternity and baby items to women it predicted were in their second trimester. The results are now data segmentation folklore.

Authorities in London last year had to stop a company’s roll out of ‘smart’ litter bins that were connecting with pedestrian’s phones and serving up targeted ads based on places the passer-by had previously visited.

UK retail giant Tesco is installing facial recognition technology that will see screens target ads at customers based on age and gender. 

Marketing innovators such as Ditto are using digital photo recognition software to trawl social media and analyse how brands are being contextualised in images people share online.

Just a taste of how the arms race to create personalised marketing campaigns is well underway; a race only likely to pick up as we take the next digital leap into the internet of things.

The submission

It is well established that terms of use, End User Licence Agreements and privacy policies – the mechanisms by which we ‘consent’ to the harvesting of our data -  are too long, too complex and too inflexible. Ironically, in light of the targeted advertising they fuel, they are distinctly impersonal.  Analysis undertaken in 2008 calculated that it would take 76 working days to read every privacy policy an internet user encounters in the course of a year.

No surprise then that research shows the median time users spend on license agreements was only six seconds; that 70% of users spend less than 12 seconds on the license page; and that no more than 8% of users read the License Agreement in full. 

Yet despite the growing unease and risk, most individuals still tick the ‘I agree’ box and ‘consent’ to giving this data. But is it given either knowingly or willingly? I think we can safely say the answer is no.

Faced with a binary ‘take it or leave it’ choice and with no opportunity to set their own preferences, current T&Cs can make consumer consent look more like consumer submission. We are left having to tick, click and hope for the best.  

This has led the World Economic Forum to caution of a developing ‘crisis of trust’, stemming from the use of personal data in ways that are inconsistent with individuals’ preferences or expectations.

Finding a more meaningful solution to this problem requires mechanisms that enable the consumer to express their terms in a simple and accessible way; not a one sided, one-size-fits-all model of consent.

Encouragingly, there are growing indications that change may be on the horizon.

The blowback


Earlier this year the US Federal Trade Commission’s own look at the data broker industry found that “data brokers operate with a fundamental lack of transparency”;

GlobalWebIndex research found that more than a quarter of the world’s online population are using tools to disguise their identity or location.

In March the father of the web, Tim Berners Lee called for an online Magna Carta - a bill of rights that would guarantee the independence of the internet and ensure people’s privacy.

And even the tech giants have begun to make a virtue of privacy. For example, Microsoft’s global ad campaign asserting ‘Your Privacy is Our Concern’. Or Apple’s CEO feeling obliged to publish an open letter to its customers stating that your trust means everything to us, and outlining its ‘strict’ data handling policies (just as Apple gears up for a big push on health and financial services – two of the most sensitive forms of consumer data).

Analysts are predicting that privacy is set to become a competitive differentiator, and the driving force for the next ‘killer app’; and the pressure for something different, for something better is now building to the point where change looks inevitable.  

A new breed of tech companies are already taking the lead on developing tools that enable consumers to start taking back control.

For example, 40 million people are using Ghostery - a browser extension that enables users to see and block companies that track you when you visit a website. Personal data vault services are emerging that allow consumers to securely gather, store, control and release their data on their own terms. The development of ‘sticky’ data policies, bind a consumer’s permissions to their data “as it travels across multiple parties, enabling users to improve control over their personal information”.

Of course, to enable effective permission-setting consumers need to understand the permissions they are granting. This too is prompting new initiatives in how to present potentially complex contracts and preferences in a ‘human readable’, engaging form.

A job for consumer groups

CI and its Members have key roles to play in helping bring about these changes too.

We must advocate to ensure the right underlying principles are enshrined in legislation. It is why CI is calling for the revised UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection to adopt an objective to safeguard consumers against the unauthorised collection, use, disclosure or loss of their personal information. 

CI has also recently launched a privacy and data protection initiative with the governments of Germany, Brazil and China – a high-level dialogue that concerns the data of more than a third of the internet users worldwide.

We must support the development of the new tools and services that can empower consumers in relation to their data, and, where appropriate help bring them to the mainstream. We must bring the consumer group testing expertise to the digital age, helping consumers identify the superior services that can best serve their needs.

And across all of this, consumer groups have a key role to play in contributing to an infrastructure that can give consumers the confidence they need to take control of their data and take a stake in the value that it will increasingly deliver in the digital economy.

The pressure is mounting for a better deal on data and privacy for consumers. It’s coming from a range of actors: governments and regulators, tech titans, internet visionaries, consumer bodies and, crucially, it’s coming more and more from consumers themselves.  

Some entrenched parties will try to resist it, but those genuinely working in the consumer interest must embrace this eagerness for change.  So let’s move towards a digital future set on terms that put the consumer first.

This blog is an extended version of a piece first featured in the Huffington Post on 26 November 2014.

Friday, 14 November 2014

Amanda Long: how our G20 campaign is improving financial consumer protection



This weekend marks a significant moment in Consumers International’s advocacy and campaigning on financial consumer protection. CI Director General, Amanda Long, explains.

The financial crash in 2008 highlighted the appalling way that consumers of financial services were being treated by the banks, not just in the major economies but around the world. 

Unfair contracts, hidden fees and charges, putting profit before basic consumer protections. For developing countries this was a serious concern as tens of millions of consumers were joining the market for financial services for the first time. CI members had been reporting this for years, but it was the financial crash that made it global headline news. 

However, when the crash came it was the stability of the banks that received the attention of world leaders. It was not until CI and our members launched our campaign in 2010 that consumer issues were addressed.

Jump forward to November 2014, and the report on the latest international developments in financial consumer protection that G20 Finance Ministers and leaders will receive this weekend. It marks a major change in international efforts to support a better deal for consumers. 

There are now a set of High Level Principles on Financial Consumer protection and a full set of ‘effective approaches’ to support their implementation. A first peer review of implementation is also in progress. FinCoNet (the international network for financial supervisors) is now a formal organization with staff, members and a work plan, and the Financial Stability Board has acknowledged the link between consumer protection and stability of the sector

We have travelled a long road to get here.

When CI launched our campaign in 2010 we made a global call for G20 leaders to take action  to strengthen financial consumer protection. Specifically we called for minimum standards relating to:

  • Fair contract terms and charges for financial products and services.
  • Information design and disclosure on financial products.
  • The governance and functions of national financial consumer protection bodies.
In addition we called on the G20 to make recommendations for:

  • The promotion of effective competition in markets for financial consumer services.
  • The development of a permanent organisation for international standard-setting and coordination with regard to financial consumer protection. 
Four years later significant progress has been made, quite an achievement at the international level. 

The G20 and OECD have agreed the ten High Level Principles and a set of effective approaches to support their implementation. And we will shortly see how that work translates into action for consumers as the first voluntary peer review is underway, with the Central Bank of Ireland becoming the first financial conduct authority to be reviewed. The Netherlands Authority for the Financial Markets (AFM) is undertaking that assessment.

And in relation to another of CI’s demands, FinCoNet, the international network for financial consumer protection, is now a formal organisation with a strong membership and a good work plan including areas that CI has championed, including responsible lending and mobile payments. 

Inclusive engagement by FinCoNet means that CI is an official observer to the network we are have been able to push for greater consumer protections by demonstrating consumer detriment in irresponsible lending and sales incentives.

Of course CI still wants to see much more effective consumer protection nationally and providers changing their policies and practices so the market offers products and services that are safe, fair and appropriate for consumers needs. This is a big challenge but one that consumer organizations are committed to delivering.

Whilst there is still much more to be done (and we may never be able to say that this work is complete) it is important to recognise that none of the international architecture was in place when CI launched its campaign in 2010.